Chardonnay almost certainly comes from Burgundy. According to recent DNA studies it is a cross between Pinot and Gouais blanc.
In Burgundy, he is still responsible for the great white Burgundies today. The Chablis is also made from Chardonnay.
Blanc De Champagne, Pinot Chardonnay, Pinot de Bourgogne
Requirements to the vineyard site:
Although Chardonnay buds quite early (problems with spring frost) it ripens later than Pinot blanc or Pinot gris. Therefore, he needs a good vineyard site which is not too windy, because he can get problems with millerandage (hen and chicken).
With over 200,000 hectares, Chardonnay is one of the world's most cultivated varieties.
In Germany, more than 2,100 ha (2018) are now planted with Chardonnay. Most of them in Rhineland-Palatinate.
The worldwide spread also benefits from the fact that Chardonnay produces very good wines in many climates. It can also be planted in warm, sometimes even in hot climates, as the acid remains relatively stable for a long time.
Chardonnay is a little more susceptible for powdery mildew than the Burgundy varieties. Botrytis, however, is usually not a big problem with Chardonnay. The berry skin seems to be somewhat more resistant here.
Chardonnay has two very different types. Besides the normal "neutral clones" there are also the "Muscat clones". The berries of these clones have a partly very strong Muscat taste.
This french clone is a real quality clone. Low yield, small and loose bunches, so Botrytis is normally not a problem.
This is his very common clone from France. It is more commonly used for wine production, but works also very good for sparkling wine. Anyone looking for a good wine quality in the medium yield range will usually go very well with the clone 95.
The 50 Gm group of clones from Geisenheim are also called the Burgundy types.
These clones have a low yield and slightly lower acidity than the champagne clones (1 Gm to 3 Gm), whereas the must weight is higher. So they are mostly suitable for making of still wines.
The following clones belong to this group:
Here are some pictures:
These three clones are so called Sparkling wine types, because they have high yield (big bunches) and high acidity.